General Well-Being Schedule (GWBS)
Description: An index of general well-being.
Format: 18 items asking about life satisfaction and level of psychological distress. There are 6 subscales measuring anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health.
Scoring: There is a total score running from 0 to 110 with lower scores indicating more severe distress. The three levels of distress are sectioned accordingly: 0 to 60 reflect 'severe distress'; 61 to 72 'moderate distress'; and 73 to 110 'positive well being'. Scores can be narrowed further into severe, serious, distress, stress problem, marginal, low positive and positive well-being.
Administration and Burden: Self-administered.
Psychometrics for SCI: Not available.
QoL Concept: The GWBS measures Life Satisfaction, which corresponds to Box E (subjective evaluations and reactions; life satisfaction) of Dijker’s Model.
Permissions/Where to Obtain: Public Domain; The GWBS can be obtained from:
Dupuy HJ (1977). The General Well-being Schedule. In I McDowell, C Newell (Eds.), Measuring health: a guide to rating scales and questionnaire (2nd ed) (pp. 206-213). USA: Oxford University Press.
CLICK ON THE LISTED SECONDARY HEALTH CONDITIONS ON THE LEFT TO READ HOW THE GWBS HAS BEEN USED WITH A PARTICULAR CONDITION
Pain SCI Studies: One randomized controlled trial.
- Nayak S, Shiflett SC, Schoenberger NE, Agostinelli S, Kirshblum S, Averill A, Cotter AC. Is acupuncture effective in treating chronic pain after spinal cord injury? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1578-86.
Sensitivity to Impact: Nayak and colleagues (2001) used ratings of interference with activity (a non-standardized study-specific measure) and the General Well-Being Scale (GWBS) to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for chronic pain and secondary symptoms after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to identify disease-specific variables associated with response to treatment in patients with SCI (N = 22). Pre-treatment pain interference scores were found to be higher than post-treatment pain interference scores, but this improvement was not maintained at the 3-month follow up.
Suggestions for Use: The GWBS has been shown to be sensitive to SCI-related pain but given the limited use of the GWBS in the SCI literature, further work is recommended to establish its psychometric properties and clinical utility.
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